Tag Archives: Ruins

On the Road – Peru: Six Recent Incredible Ancient Finds

Machu Picchu before the crowds. Photo by Dawn Wohlfarth.

When most people think of Peru and archaeology, one site looms in their minds: the Incas’ glorious Machu Picchu. Peru, though, has ruined cities of many other pre-Columbian cultures that rival Inca remains. Two areas that local archaeologists consider to be equally – if not more – important than the Sacred Valley are the North Coast, between Trujillo and Chiclayo, and the Chachapoyas regions where every year, startling new finds are unearthed.

 

The news has been chock-full of discoveries and recoveries. Yale University has finally returned thousands of artifacts Hiram Bingham had taken from Machu Picchu. A new museum is being built in the Sacred Valley to house those treasures. Remember, travelers: During the month of February, the famous Inca Trail is closed for maintenance, but the archaeological site does remain open.

 

Journeyers heading to Arequipa may be disappointed to discover that the mummy Juanita (also known as La Dama de Ampato) is not on display at the Santuarios Andinos de Arequipa museum. She is receiving special treatments to preserve her.

 

 

The big news, though, is coming from the North Coast region. Long before the Inca rose from the depths of Lake Titicaca, this area was home to the great Mochica, Moche and Chimú empires. Today, the massive adobe cities’ pyramids are yielding astounding archaeological finds. Here are six of the most exciting discoveries and recoveries that are happening there:

 

  • Just in time for National Popcorn Day, the oldest evidence of that delicious treat has been found at Huaca Prieta in northern Peru. The 6,700-year-old remains show that a variety of corn (including that for popcorn) was being used 2,000 years earlier than previously thought.

 

Ayapec (Huaca de la Luna). Photo by morrissey

  • Another great discovery is at Huaca de la Luna, near Trujillo. In continuing excavations there, archaeologists have uncovered a semi-circular altar upon which human sacrifices were done. Also discovered are stunning wall paintings. Visitors to this site now have an aerial walkway from which to enjoy the huaca’s many murals and a new museum.

 

  • In 2006, at El Brujo, another site near Trujillo, archaeologists found a most fascinating woman: la Señora de Cau, also known as the Tattooed Woman. Not only was she buried with incredible treasures, but her body was also richly adorned with art. Various pieces of this find are displayed at the Museo del Sitio Cau at the El Brujo archaeological complex.

 

Huaca del Brujo - Royal Tomb. Photo by Veronique Debord

  • Near Chiclayo, a tomb richer than that of the Señor of Sipán has been uncovered in the Chotuna-Chornancap archaeological complex, nine kilometer (5.5 miles) south of Lambayeque. The Sacerdote de Chornancap (Priest of Chornancap) is causing quite a stir for the nine sets of ear piercings he has and his treasures. After study and restoration work are completed in six to eight months, the artifacts will be exhibited in the Museo Brüning, and later at Lima’s Museo Nacional.

 

  • Speaking of the Lambayeque’s archaeological riches: The priceless pendant, Cabeza de Mono Dorada, has been repatriated to Peru. This beautiful gold broche, inlaid with sodalite and other stones, was looted from a tomb of the La Mina archaeological site in Jetuetepeque in the 1980s. Experts have not yet decided where the public may view it.

 

  • Near Cajamarca, work is continuing on Poro Poro de Udima. The site was devoted to a water-centered cult. Once the rains let up in the region, Poro Poro de Udima will be open to the public through April.

 

Photos of all the new finds can be viewed at Arqueología del Perú’s website, which is an excellent source for keeping up with the country’s latest archaeological discoveries.

 

 

Lorraine Caputo is one of V!VA’s longest-tenured writers. These days, she’s back on the road, updating our 2012 edition of  V!VA Peru. Check the blog for more of her updates from the road.

 

Three Towns in Chile Anyone Will Love

When travelers plan their trips to Chile, usually Santiago, Valparaiso and the wine country are at the top of their lists. But other parts of the country offer towns that anyone will love, places full of history, culinary delights and cultural diversity. Three cities that are often overlooked are Arica, Valdivia and Porvenir. V!VA Travel Guides Chile can help you explore the many facets of these places.

 

In the extreme north of Chile, just mere kilometers from the Peruvian border, is Arica. Among this city’s many distinctions are the world’s shortest railroad (from Arica to Tacna, Peru) and the oldest mummies (over 10,000 years old). It is a city steeped in history. This once-important Spanish colonial port was a major battleground during the War of the Pacific. It also was wiped out twice by tsunamis in the 19th century. Several structures by Gustave Eiffel decorate downtown.

Arica offers nature lovers bird watching at the Lluta River Mouth wetlands and boat tours along the coast to the Humboldt penguin colony at Caleta de Camarones. Adrenaline junkies can hit some of the world’s most challenging surf or go kitesurfing. And of course, the miles of beaches and Isla del Alacrán offer a bit of something for everyone.

Eiffel's cathedral in Arica.

On the cultural front, the city has several museums, like the Museo del Mar and El Morro hill with the Museo Histórico y de Armas. On any given day, you can see Aymara or African-descendent dance troupes dancing down the 21 de Mayo pedestrian street. This is also a favorite venue for the medieval-esque tuna music groups. Culinary delights include empanadas de jaiba-queso (crab and cheese pies) and sopa marinera (seafood soup).

Two river valley oases hug Arica. To the north is Valle de Lluta, with many small Andean villages with colonial churches and the Eco-Truly yoga spa. Valle de Azapa, which is famous for its olives, begins south of the city. Along the road are dozens of geoglyphs, or designs etched into the hillsides, tombs and a pre-Columbian pukará fortress. The Museo de San Miguel has ancient mummies and fine textiles.

Arica is also a good jumping off point for trips to the Pre-Cordillera de Belén, where a dozen Aymara villages and ancient ruins nestle into the folds of the Andean foothills, Putre and Parque Nacional Lauca near the Bolivian border.

Riding the surf in Arica.

South of Santiago is Valdivia, in the heart of Chile’s famed Lake District. This city at the confluence of three rivers also has a fascinating history. In the dawn of the 17th century, the Mapuche indigenous forced the Spanish to abandon the port which was later occupied by Dutch pirates. In their efforts to reconquer their Pearl of the Pacific, the Spaniards built the America’s second largest fortress system, covering over 18 kilometers (11 miles). During the 19th century, thousands of Germans immigrated here. In 1960, the largest earthquake in modern history destroyed the city.

The Mapuche festival in Valdivia.

Today, Valdivia is a culturally and ethnically vibrant city. It has a full slate of museums covering everything from natural history to art, as well as a half-dozen performance art centers. The city’s ethnic diversity is celebrated with several festivals: Bierfest (January 29-February 1), Fiesta de las Tradiciones (September 17-21) and Expoarte y Cultura Mapuche (November 28-30).

 Visitors to Valdivia can join the national rowing team sculling the rivers. You can also spend a day boating towards the sea to visit the Spanish fortresses at Isla Mancera, Corral and Niebla, or upstream to Punucapa and the Cuello Negro brewery. Kunstmann, famous throughout Chile for its beer, also is headquartered near Valdivia.

A Spanish fortress.

At the end of a day of exploring Valdivia and its region, try some of its famous seafood or a crudo, a dish of its German origin. Of course, accompany any repast with one of the local beers (Café las Gringas serves all of Chile’s microbrews) and end it with some delectable chocolate.

Valdivia is a good point to launch any hiking expedition into the Lake District’s many national parks, like Villarrica, near Pucón, with a volcano to climb, or Puyehue, with an active volcano. Hot springs, fishing and other nature diversions spot the countryside around the Seven Lakes. The entire region is perfumed by the Mapuche and German cultures.

Black-neck Swans.

At the far end of Chile, on the eastern shore of the Magellan Strait, is our last destination: Porvenir. This town on the island of Tierra del Fuego also has a deep history and culture. It was where Selk’nam wandered and fished, Croats and Chilotes came looking for gold at the end of the rainbow and Chilean cinema was born.

Follow the rainbow to Porvenir.

Although the indigenous peoples of this land are long gone, you can learn about their culture at the Museo Provincial Fernando Cordero Rusque. Porvenir’s modern history began with a gold rush in the late 19th century. By following the Circuito Histórico Cultural into the mountains near Porvenir, you will find men still panning the chill streams for gold nuggets. This historic circuit also wends to the old sheep ranch Estancia Caleta Josefina and Onaisín.

The shores of Porvenir’s bay is a great place to learn about the town’s history and to birdwatch. Another refuge for avifauna is Monumento Nacional de los Cisnes. Out in the hinterlands of the island are Lago Blanco, a trout angler’s Paradise, and the Cordillera de Darwin, the ultimate adventure for trekkers.

Porvenir is accesible by ferry from Punta Arenas, or by private vehicle the Argentine cities Ushuaia and Río Gallegos. To visit sites in the countryside around Porvenir, rent a car in any of the major cities, hire a driver in Porvenir, go on tour or bicycle out. As in other parts of Chile, seafood is superb here. Porvenir is the best place to try centolla, or king crab.

 

Arica, Valdivia and Porvenir are all easy to get to from the neighboring countries. If you’re needing a break from Peru or Argentina, head over the border for the multi-faceted pleasures these three towns guarantee. Pack along V!VA’s other guidebooks to help you navigate into the lesser-known corners of all these countries.

Digging Argentina: Archaeological Sites on the Pampa

A menhire at El Mollar.

Although Argentina isn’t thought of as a country with archaeological riches, there are ancient sites scattered across the pampas where you can dig into this country’s indigenous past. Millennia ago, great cities were founded in the Northwest and wandering hunter nations left their imprint across the Patagonia plains.

 

Salta is the jumping off point to visit the sites that scatter the Northwest of Argentina. From the Bolivian border to Catamarca, the canyons and highlands hide memories of the long-ago times. At Yaví, near La Quiaca, petroglyphs paint rock overhang. In the Quebrada de Humahuaca is Pukará de Tilcara, a pre-Incan hilltop fortress.

 

The sacred city Quilmes.

South of Salta is Argentina’s most famous and significant archaeological ruins, Quilmes. This religious city of the Quilmes nation was established in the 9th century AD and inhabited until 1667. It was a major center of resistance against the Inca and Spaniards. The ruins terrace the cragged desert hills near Amaicha del Valle. The Quilmes descendants, the Diaguita, still consider it a sacred site.

 

Once the entire valley on the other side of the ridge from Amaicha was filled with menhire, or carved stone pillars. The meaning of these enigmatic statues is lost in the mists of time that rise from Dique La Angostura. Modern man has gathered many of the sculptures together in El Mollar, near Tafí del Valle.

 

Pueblo Perdido

Continuing South, edging the Andean mountains, travelers will find more remnants of Argentina’s pre-Columbian past. Near Catamarca, cities of the Aguada nation protected the narrow valleys from the advance of invaders. One of the best-preserved examples is Pueblo Perdido de la Quebrada, dating from the 3rd to 5th century AD. From beneath cardoon cactus and desert scrub, the stone walls mutely give testimony to that part of Argentina’s history.

 

 

From Argentina’s Northwest, Ruta 40 winds through the Andean foothills into the Patagonia—and to a different type of reminder of the country’s ancient past. For thousands of years, the ancestors of the Aónikenk wandered these wind-swept plains, following herds of guanaco. Wherever they went, they left colorful handprints on the walls of shallow caves.

Cueva de las Manos.

The most famous of these sites is Cueva de las Manos, a UNESCO World Heritage Site south of Perito Moreno. The cave earns its name from the 829 handprints adorning the walls. Rhea prints, salamanders, hunting scenes and birthing guanacos under full moons are other creations these journeyers left behind.

 

Many other sites like this extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific. Near Puerto San Julián is Estancia La María, home to what archaeologists consider Patagonia’s second-most important site. In the center of the Patagonia, Sarmiento claims the Alero de Manos Pintadas. The pre-Áónikenk peoples didn’t only stay on the eastern side of the Andes, though. Just across the border from Perito Moreno, in Chile, there are other pre-Aónikenk hand paintings along the shores of Lago Buenos Aires (Lago General Carrera): in Reserva Natural Jeínemeni near Chile Chico and Paredón de las Manos at Cerro Castillo.

 

The hands at Cerro Castillo

With summer approaching, it’s a great time to get to these and many other archaeological sites. To help you dig Argentina’s barely excavated history, pack along a copy of V!VA Travel Guides Argentina. To get to the Chilean sites, pick up on V!VA Travel Guides Chile.

Quito's Seven Wonders

If you are presently in Quito or visited the city in the past, you undoubtedly have visited dozens of the nominations for Quito’s Seven Wonders.

Following in the footsteps of Asunción (Paraguay), Barcelona, Brasilia, Madrid and Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic), Quito has decided to designate seven wonders in its own historic city. Voting began four months ago and ends July 31.

Anyone can participate by voting online at: www.7maravillasdequito.com.

The nominations are:

  1. Santo Domingo
  2. San Francisco
  3. El Sagrario
  4. Santa Bárbara
  5. La Compañía de Jesús
  6. Catedral Metropolitano
  7. Convento de El Carmen Alto
  8. La Merced
  9. Convento de San Agustín
  10. La Basílica del Voto Nacional
  11. Iglesia de Guápulo
  12. Iglesia de la Virgen de El Quinche
  13. Plaza Grande
  14. Palacio Arzobispal
  15. Palacio de Carondelet
  16. Virgen del Panecillo
  17. Cima de La Libertad
  18. Antiguo Hospital Militar
  19. Teatro Bolívar
  20. Teatro Nacional Sucre
  21. Palacio de Cristal Itchimbía
  22. Centro Cultural Metropolitano
  23. Antiguo Hospital San Juan de Dios (Museo de la Ciudad)
  24. Calle la Ronda
  25. Museo del Agua Yaku
  26. Laguna de La Alameda
  27. La Capilla del Hombre
  28. Parque El Ejido
  29. Jardín Botánico de Quito
  30. Parque Metropolitano
  31. Reserva del Pululahua
  32. Ciudad Mitad del Mundo
  33. Sitio Arqueológico Rumicucho
  34. Cemeterio de San Diego
  35. Estación de Ferrocarril Chimbacalle
  36. Río Machángara El Parque Largo Machángara
  37. Volcán Pichincha

New Ruins Discovered in Peru

Hikers in the remote Peruvian Utcubamba province have discovered a few well-preserved buildings near a towering waterfall. The buildings are believed to have been left by the mysterious Chachapoya people, who were conquered and incorporated into the Inca Empire not long before the arrival of the Spanish. The ruins are win good shape, and according to archaeologists appear to be untouched by looters. The structures are built high into a cliff wall and it is theorized that they may have served as lookout towers. As yet there is no word on when and if the archaeological site will become open for tourism.

Ancient Pyramid Spotted by Satellite

Italian researchers have ennounced the discovery of an ancient pyramid located not far from Peru’s mysterious Nazca lines. The Quickbird satellite produced multispectral images, which, when properly filtered and examined, show a large pyramid whose base is roughly 300 feet by 328 feet. The structure is invisible to tne naked eye, as it has long been covered with dirt and vegetation. There are no immediate plans to excavate the new discovery, as there is already extensive ongoing archaeology in the area. The discovery comes as no surprise to archaeologists, who were aware that several hills in the area might well hide ancient structures. Hopefully, the same technology will be able to locate lost Aztec, Inca and Maya sites as well.

Protesters, Police Clash at Mexican Maya site

The tiny ruins at Chinkultik are located not far from the Mexican border with Guatemala, and are mostly visited by ruins buffs headed north from Guatemela to Palenque. Although archaeologists consider Chinkultik important, it is not anywhere near as spectacular as Tikal, Chichen Itza or the other major Mayan sites. This week, however, they’ve become the focus of international attention. On September 7, local Indian groups forcefully took over the site, kicking out park officials. They claimed that the entry fees were too high (and therefore driving off tourists from the region) and that an insufficient percent of the proceeds were going to local projects. They took over the ticket booth, lowered the fees, and allowed archaeologists to remain and work. Late last week, local police removed the navites, and things got ugly. Four or six (reports differ) locals were killed, and numerous others were injured. An investigation is proceeding, but visitors to Chiapas may want to head directly to Palenque to get their ruins fix for the time being.